Standards, whether industry, national or international standards, provide guidance to irrigators regarding equipment, systems and practices. Within the area of surface irrigation, the most beneficial standards have been developed by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE). Following is an annotated listing of ASAE standards which might be of interest to surface irrigators.
The prefix S on the numerical designation of a document denotes that it is a standard. The prefix EP denotes an engineering practice. An X indicates a document in preparation that has not completed the ASAE review process (it may be a revision of an existing ASAE standard). ASAE standards and engineering practices may be ordered (please specify prefix and number) from the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9695, phone (616) 429-0300.
S261.6 - DESIGN AND INSTALLATION OF NONREINFORCED CONCRETE IRRIGATION PIPE SYSTEMS. This standard deals with low or intermediate concrete irrigation pipelines with vents or stands open to the atmosphere. The standard discusses load and pressure limits, and suitable soil conditions. Requirements for stands, vents, anchors and thrust blocks are given. Installation guidelines for placement, joints and contractions, curing and backfilling, and testing are given.
EP267.6 - PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES FOR PREVENTION OF MOSQUITO SOURCES ASSOCIATED WITH IRRIGATION. This engineering practice offers recommendations for the prevention and elimination of man-made mosquito sources which may be associated with irrigation. The document offers recommendations for storage reservoirs, conveyance and distribution systems, irrigated farms, and drainage systems.
EP285.7 - USE OF SI (METRIC) UNITS. This engineering practice is a guide to the use of SI (Metric) units, symbols, usage, and conversion factors for physical quantities.
S289.1 - CONCRETE SLIP-FORM CANAL LININGS. This standard specifies thicknesses, dimensions, tolerances and concrete mix requirements for concrete slip-form canal linings. The criteria apply to canals having a bottom width not greater than 72 inches, and a depth of lined section not greater than 84 inches.
EP340.2 - INSTALLATION OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LININGS. This engineering practice deals with linings used as seepage barriers for ponds, reservoirs, canals, etc. The document discusses soil subgrade conditions, membrane thickness, membrane sizing and seams, and membrane materials. Design and membrane selection criteria are given for reservoir and pond linings, and for canal linings.
S376.1 - DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND PERFORMANCE OF UNDERGROUND, THERMOPLASTIC IRRIGATION PIPELINES. This standard provides minimum specifications for materials, design, installation and testing of underground thermoplastic pipelines for conveying irrigation water. The document also consolidates related technical data and reference material on the subject. The standard covers: pipe materials and dimensions for PVC and polyethylene pipe; design criteria, including pressure ratings and service factors, pressure, air and vacuum relief valves; and installation requirements, including trenching, placement, thrust-blocking, backfilling and testing.
X376.1 - DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND PERFORMANCE OF UNDERGROUND, THERMOPLASTIC IRRIGATION PIPELINES. This is a revision in progress of the existing ASAE standard S376.1.
S397.1 - ELECTRICAL SERVICE AND EQUIPMENT FOR IRRIGATION. This standard covers three phase, 240 V or 480 V service, the most common service for irrigation pump motors, irrigation machines and auxiliary equipment. The standard discusses grounding, circuit disconnect means, pump motors and panels, lightning arrestors, interlocking and fuses. The document contains numerous schematic diagrams detailing recommended approaches to achieving specific objectives.
EP400.1 - DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTING IRRIGATION WELLS. This engineering practice will aid preparation of specifications for irrigation well construction. The practice covers such design factors as test holes, well intake zone, well inlet and well casing. Construction details, well development and well testing are also discussed.
EP408.1 - DESIGN AND INSTALLATION OF SURFACE IRRIGATION RUNOFF REUSE SYSTEMS. This engineering practice contains a discussion of reuse system components, measurement or estimation of runoff, reservoir sizing, and system management.
EP409 - SAFETY DEVICES FOR APPLYING LIQUID CHEMICALS THROUGH IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. This engineering practice specifies safety devices required when injecting chemicals through irrigation systems. The document deals with backflow prevention devices, including air gap, atmospheric vacuum breakers, pressure vacuum breakers, double check valves, and reduced pressure principle devices. Interlock injections systems are also covered.
X409 - SAFETY DEVICES FOR APPLYING LIQUID CHEMICALS THROUGH IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. This document will be a revision of existing ASAE engineering practice EP409.
EP419 - EVALUATION OF FURROW IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. This engineering practice establishes procedures for a thorough field evaluation of furrow irrigation systems. Field procedures are given for selection of test furrows, furrow characteristics, soil moisture deficit and infiltration evaluations, and advance, recession and runoff estimations. Analytical techniques for evaluating various soil, uniformity and efficiency parameters are described.
X437 - PVC ABOVE GROUND IRRIGATION PIPE. This standard is being developed by ASAE's Irrigation Water Supply and Conveyance Committee.
X438 - MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRIGATION PUMPING PLANTS. This standard is being developed by ASAE's Irrigation Water Supply and Conveyance Committee.
X490 - TERMINOLOGY FOR IRRIGATION SCHEDULING AND IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY. This document is being developed by ASAE's Surface Irrigation Committee.